Many types of construction stones are available, for example basalt, marble, calcareous, sandstone, quartzite, slate, travertine, laterite and granite. The stones used in the building should be rough, long-lasting, tough and free of weathered soft patches of material, cracks and other flaws that decrease strength and toughness. Stones are obtained from solid solid large rocks for building purposes.
Any stone type is suited according to its properties to different building applications. For example, certain forms such as basalt and granite have superior characteristics such as high compressive strength and longevity and are thus used for massive building projects. However, stones are ideal for small building works, such as gneiss, by their characteristics (such poor compression resistance and inclusion of deleterious materials in their components). Steins are therefore used for structural applications as well as aesthetic purposes.
The basalt stone is also used as an additive in the construction of concrete and as a trap for bridge piers, river walls and dams, and is often known as traps. The composition of the basalt stone is medium to thin and lightweight.
This form of stone has a compression strength between 200MPa and 350Mpa, and weights between 18KN/m3 and 29KN/m3. Basalt has a high weather tolerance, it has very hard to wear in fine ways and is impermeable to moisture. The basalt color shifts between dark gray and charcoal.
In construction, granite is added to bridge plugs, storage walls, dams, curbs, pillars of stone such as coarse concrete aggregates, train ballast, as dummy surface and exterior wall cladding, and for monumental applications. The granite composition is crystalline, of fine to gross grain. The compression strength varies between 100 MPa and 250 MPa and it is considerably hard and robust. It has low absorption, lower porosity, good frost and weather resistance, but poor fire resistance. The hue, from light grey to pink, takes polish well. The polished granite can be used as table tops, column and wall coverings.
In the heavy buildings, sandstones in conjunction with silica cement are used. It also functions in masonry, barracks, bridge piers and walls of the channel. It is made from quartz and feldspar and can be used in white, grey, red, buff, brown, yellow and dark grey colours. The pressure scale is from 20MPa to 170MPa, with gravity listed ranging from 1.85 to 2.7. We realize that it is not ideal for building by weathering sandstone.
The building properties of Slate differ significantly, based on the scale of the sheet and the color of the rock. It is used as bricks, sheets and floors for roofing. It is composed of minerals of quartz, mica and clay. Slate is compressive from 100MPa to 200MPa and has a dark grey, greenish gray, purple gray to black hue. Slate has a thin seed structure and is of 2.6 to 2.7 special gravity.
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